Monday, March 16, 2020

The Xia Dynasty of Ancient China

The Xia Dynasty of Ancient China The Xia Dynasty is said to have been the first true Chinese dynasty, described in the ancient Bamboo Annals called the Ji Tomb Annals, dated to the late third century BCE; and in the Records of the Historian Sima Qian (called the Shi Ji and written about 145 BCE). There is a long-standing debate as to whether the Xia Dynasty was myth or reality; until the mid-20th century, no direct evidence was available to support stories of this long-vanished era. Some scholars still believe that it was invented in order to validate the leadership of the Shang Dynasty, for which there is abundant archaeological and written evidence. The Shang Dynasty was founded in about 1760 BCE, and many of the attributes ascribed to the Xia are different from those ascribed to the Xia. Legends of the Xia Dynasty According to the historical records, the Xia dynasty is thought to have lasted between about 2070–1600 BCE, and it was said to have been founded by a man known as Yu the Grea a descendant of the Yellow Emperor, and born about 2069. His capital was at Yang City. Yu is a semi-mythical figure who spent 13 years stopping a great flood and bringing irrigation to the Yellow River Valley. Yu was the ideal hero and ruler, said to have been assisted in his work by a yellow dragon and a black turtle. Many of the tales about him are cast in mythology, which doesnt necessarily rule out the possible reality of a sophisticated society predating the Shang. The Xia dynasty is said to be the first to irrigate, produce cast bronze, and build a strong army. It used oracle bones and had a calendar. Xi Zhong is credited in legend with inventing a wheeled vehicle. He used a compass, square, and rule. King Yu was the first king to be succeeded by his son instead of a man chosen for his virtue. This made the Xia the first Chinese dynasty. The Xia under King Yu probably had about 13.5 million people. According to the Records of the Grand Historian (the Shi Ji, started around the second century BCE (over a millennium after the end of the Xia Dynasty), there were 17 Xia Dynasty Kings. They included: Yu the Great: 2205–2197 BCEEmperor Qi: 2146–2117 BCETai Kang: 2117–2088 BCEZhong Kang: 2088–2075 BCEXiang: 2075–2008 BCEShao Kang: 2007–1985 BCEZhu: 1985–1968 BCEHuai: 1968–1924 BCEMang: 1924–1906 BCEXie: 1906–1890 BCEBu Jiang: 1890–1831 BCEJiong: 1831–1810 BCEJin: 1810–1789 BCEKong Jia: 1789–1758 BCEGao: 1758–1747 BCEFa: 1747–1728 BCEJie: 1728–1675 BCE The fall of the Xia is blamed on its last king, Jie, who is said to have fallen in love with an evil, beautiful woman and become a tyrant. The people rose up in rebellion under the leadership of Zi Là ¼, the Tang Emperor and founder of the Shang Dynasty. Possible Xia Dynasty Sites While there is still debate over how much the texts can be relied on, there is recent evidence has increased the likelihood that there really was dynasty predating the Shang. Late Neolithic sites which hold some elements suggesting Xia dynasty remains include Taosi, Erlitou, Wangchenggang, and Xinzhai in central Henan province. Not all researchers in China agree to the connection of archaeological sites with prehistoric semi-mythical polities, although scholars have noted that Erlitou in particular had a high degree of cultural-political sophistication at an early period. Erlitou  in Henan Province is a massive site, covering at least 745 acres, and occupations between 3500–1250 BCE; at its heyday about 1800, it was the primary center in the region, with eight palaces and a large cemetery precinct.  Ã‚  Taosi, in southern Shanxi, (2600–2000 BCE) was a regional center, and had an urban center surrounded by large rammed-earth walls, a craft production center for pottery and other artifacts, and a semicircular rammed-earth structure which has been identified as an astronomical observatory.  Wangchenggang in Dengfeng province (2200–1835 BCE) was a settlement center for at least 22 other sites in the upper Ying River valley. It had two connected small rammed-earth enclosures built about 2200 BCE, a craftproduction center, and many ash pits some containing human burials.  Xinzhai, in Henan Province (2200–1900 BCE) is an urban center with at least fifteen associated sites surrounding it, with a large semi-subterranean stru cture interpreted as a ritual structure.   In 2016, an international group of archaeologists reported evidence of a great flood in the Yellow River at a site called Lajia, dated about 1920 BCE, which they claimed provided support to the great flood in the Xia Dynasty legends. The Laija townsite in particular was found with several residences with skeletons buried within the deposits. Wu Qinglong and colleagues admitted that the date was several centuries later than the historical records state. The article appeared in Science magazine in August of 2016, and three comments were quickly received disagreeing with the dating and interpretation of the geological and archaeological data, so the site remains an open question like the others. Sources Dai, L. L., et al. An Isotopic Perspective on Animal Husbandry at the Xinzhai Site During the Initial Stage of the Legendary Xia Dynasty (2070–1600 BC). International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 26.5 (2016): 885–96. Print.Han, Jian-Chiu. Comment on Outburst Flood at 1920 BCE Supports Historicity of China’s Great Flood and the Xia Dynasty. Science 355.6332 (2017): 1382–82. Print.Huang, Chun Chang, et al. Comment on Outburst Flood at 1920 BCE Supports Historicity of China’s Great Flood and the Xia Dynasty. Science 355.6332 (2017): 1382–82. Print.Liu, Li. State Emergence in Early China. Annual Review of Anthropology 38 (2009): 217–32. Print.Wu, Qinglong, et al. Outburst Flood at 1920 Bce Supports Historicity of China’s Great Flood and the Xia Dynasty. Science 353.6299 (2016): 579–382. Print.Wu, Qinglong, et al. Response to Comments on Outburst Flood at 1920 BCE Supports Historicity of China’s Great Flood and the Xia D ynasty. Science 355.6332 (2017): 1382–82. Print.Wu, Wenxiang, et al. Comment on â€Å"Outburst Flood at 1920 Bce Supports Historicity of China’s Great Flood and the Xia Dynasty†. Science 355.6332 (2017): 1382-82. Print.

Friday, February 28, 2020

Living experience of a person of another race Essay

Living experience of a person of another race - Essay Example Additionally the book brings out an aspect of female discrimination and how they were not given a position in the society. If I was born black and was in the shoe of the young black lady, I think my life would have been harder. People of color were discriminated more that the Asian, in fact, the Asians faced discrimination mainly because they were thought to be brighter than the white. Secondly, the white felt that Asians would take over. As much as all immigrants faced racial discrimination, the black people were more oppressed, because of the color and the fact that they were seen as illiterate hence considered inferior, especially the female. If I was in a colored skin, I would not have an opportunity to experience some opportunities because black women were not even give a chance by their community to have a profession. Unlike the Asian where the society encouraged their girls to study so that they can be able provide for their family financially. Asians also believed in a strong culture that emphasis on the connection between efforts and achievement. Being born black especially as women one was reduced to a state of enslavement working as a salve, nannies in their master homes and in fields. The pay was minuscule. Black people were victims of racism, chauvinism, and manipulation specially the black woman. Therefore, they had no voice in the society and the black men also did not give them the chance and considered them as inferior too, and their role was to look after their family. That is why in the book Bell narrated how it was sickening to have to do things to please his brother. This demoralized the young black girls since they did not have a role model in the society, neither were they give a chance to go to school. Furthermore, they did not have people to push them to acquire good education as the Asian. Most grew up knowing

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

Nurses as patient advocates reporting negligence by other health care Essay

Nurses as patient advocates reporting negligence by other health care providers - Essay Example Advances in the 21st century are seeing many new developments in the field of healthcare forcing the nursing faculty to reinforce effective and appropriate education and take up more challenging and leading roles. This becomes of primary importance by virtue of the nature of the profession nursing is. As such, the primary goal of nursing is to provide quality health care to patients. One of such challenges is to be advocates to their patients. By the nature of their profession, nurses are bestowed upon the opportunity to work closely with physicians of their patients. Thus any incompetence, negligence, carelessness and even malpractice on the part of physician or other health professionals may be recognized by the nurses. Patients and their relatives, who are ignorant of various aspects of medical fraternity fall prey to the incompetence and unethical deeds of their physicians and suffer in silence. In such situations, nurses must take up the role of advocates and provide justice to the patients and their relatives by voicing the injustice matter. This must be done with the intention of better care of the patient. It is of course not an easy task to whistle blow! Whistle blowing means "going public or speaking out to ones professional organization or to the media in order to protect the welfare of patients because of a perceived wrongdoing on the part of others" (Elen; cited in ANA, 2001). Whistle blowing is a major source of moral distress and mental trauma to the nurses because it makes the nurses weigh between the duties of the nurses and the obligations of providing justice to the patients and their relatives. Taking up the role of patients advocates is not without risk for the nurses. Whistle blowing can lead to loss of job, negative reactions from coworkers and even legal consequences (ANA, 2001). It can cause undue loss of privacy of the patient, tarn the image of the physician and institution and also cause loss of provider to

Friday, January 31, 2020

Event study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Event study - Essay Example A plausible explanation for these findings is that changes in the optimal dividend and debt levels stem from changes in, expected cash flows, and thus, signal a change in firm value. Efficient Market Hypothesis Researchers have developed a hypothesis known as the Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) which states that the market prices reflect all information known to the public. Market react to any new information available in the market immediately as reflected in stock prices rather than gradually adjust it. The term ‘efficient market’ was coined by Eugene Fama in 1965. He described an efficient market as a market where at any point in time, actual prices of individual securities already reflect the effects of information based both on events that have already occurred and on events which, as of now, the market expects to take place in the future. The efficient market prices represent the intrinsic value of the securities. The EMH along with the Random Walk Hypothesis (RW H) flies in the face of Wall Street financial analysts. Financial analysts despise even hearing those terms. This is because these hypotheses suggest that there are no future predictions that can be made about how a market will behave. The suggestion that all the information known about past, present and future events is reflected in the current market prices means that the financial analysts are snake oil salesmen. This is why the EMH is such a controversial hypothesis. Types of Market Efficiency There are three primary categorization of EMH given by Fama (1970) according to the type of information reflected in the stock price – 1. Weak-form efficiency - Share prices reflect all past information and thus, rules out the possibility of predicting future stock prices on the basis of past price data alone. 2. Semi strong-form efficiency - A market is semi strong-form if share prices reflect all the relevant publicly available information. It also includes earnings and dividend a nnouncements, technological breakthroughs, mergers and splits, resignation of directors, and so on. 3. Strong-form efficiency -Market in which share prices reflect not only publicly but also the privately available information. It is assumed that all the information is available to everybody at the same time. Even an insider who has private information about a company cannot earn abnormal profits in strong form of market efficiency. Literature Review Event studies have a long history, including the original stock split event study by Fama, Fisher, Jensen, and Roll (1969). Inconsistent evidence with the efficient market, hypothesis started to accumulate in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Evidence on the post earnings announcement effects (Ball and Brown, 1968, and Jones and Litzenberger, 1970), size effect (Banz, 1981), and earnings yield effect (Basu, 1983) contributed to skepticism for Capital Asset Pricing Model as well as market efficiency. According to the theory of information efficiency, security prices should reflect immediately all information available to the efficient capital market. As positive information and trading cost can be expected, this extreme efficiency hypothesis cannot be held. Fama (1998) in his survey studied the various event studies that intend to validate if the stock prices respond to new information. The events studied include announcements such as earnings surprises, stock splits, dividend, mergers, new

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Concentration of Salt Solution :: Papers

Concentration of Salt Solution (dmÃâ€" ¿Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ³) 1st set of results (g) 2nd set of results (g) 3rd set of results (g) Average of the 3 sets of results (g) 0 2.11 1.79 1.05 1.65 0.2 2.30 1.87 1.09 1.75 0.4 2.32 2.03 1.12 1.82 0.6 2.40 2.01 1.12 1.84 0.8 2.43 2.10 1.08 1.87 1.0 2.38 2.01 1.09 1.83 1.2 2.33 2.12 1.09 1.85 1.4 2.27 2.02 1.08 1.78 1.6 2.27 2.01 1.08 1.79 1.8 2.27 2.11 1.17 1.85 2.0 2.24 2.01 0.96 1.74 Results This is a table to show the mass of the potatoes at the start of the experiment. Each weight was carried out three times. The next table shows the weights of the potatoes after the experiment Concentration of salt solution (DmÃâ€" ¿Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ³) 1st set of results (g) 2nd set of results (g) 3rd set of results (g) Average of the 3 sets of results (g) 0 2.11 1.79 1.05 1.65 0.2 2.30 1.87 1.09 1.75 0.4 2.32 2.03 1.12 1.82 0.6 2.40 2.01 1.12 1.84 0.8 2.43 2.10 1.08 1.87 1.0 2.38 2.01 1.09 1.83 1.2 2.33 2.12 1.09 1.85 1.4

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Poetry and Figuartive Essay

Since this week’s appraisals I have selected the following three poems; â€Å"My grandmother’s love letters† by Hart Crane, â€Å"The road not taken† Robert Frost, as well as â€Å"Richard Cory† by Edward Arlington Robinson. My Grandmother’s Love Letters By Hart Crane (1899-1932) There are no stars tonight But those of memory. Yet how much room for memory there is In the loose girdle of soft rain. There is even room enough For the letters of my mother’s mother, Elizabeth, That have been passed so long Into the corner of the roof That they are brown and soft, And liable to melt as snow. Over the greatness of such space Steps must be gentle. It is all hung by an invisible white hair. It trembles as birch limbs webbing the air. I ask myself: â€Å"Are your fingers long enough to play Old keys that are but echoes: Is the silence strong enough To carry back the music to its source And back to you again As though to her? † Yet I would lead my grandmother by the hand Through much of what she would not understand; And so I stumble. And the rain continues on the roof With such a sound of gently pitying laughter. (Thiel, 2005, pp. 295-296) The imagery in this poem is very opulent and gaudy. At the beginning I see a obscurity that is beginning to be lite up by affectionate reminiscences, like a candle getting livelier and livelier. I can perceive rain dwindling on the roof at the same time. The granddaughter has found some letters, perchance in an attic. The letters are ancient and brown with oldness. And with age paper develops inelastic and could fall separately without much assistance. As she starts to uncluttered the letters she derives to the comprehension that she must be very cautious. She is interrogative whether or not she should read it. The rigorous of  the rain falling on the roof sounds to her like her grandmothers amusement. Unfortunately I possibly will only find a couple belongings that rhymed. And I have faith in they are of no prominence. I think the line â€Å"is the silence strong enough† is a hyperbole; it is an embellishment put demonstrates the opinion that peace can be sturdy just not in a corporeal method. I adored this poem because reading it made me contemplate of my own grandmother who was a saccharine and compassionate woman. The Road Not Taken By Robert Frost (1874 – 1963) Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, And sorry I could not travel both  And be one traveler, long I stood And looked down one as far as I could To where it bent in the undergrowth; Then took the other, as just as fair, And having perhaps the better claim, Because it was grassy and wanted wear; Though as for that the passing there Had worn them really about the same, And both that morning equally lay In leaves no step had trodden black. Oh, I keep the first for another day! Yet knowing how way leads onto way, I doubted if I should ever come back. I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages hence: Two roads diverged in a wood, and I – I took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference. (Thiel, 2005, pp. 297 – 298) As I underway reading this poem, I visualized a man upended at a fork in the street. The scenery is a forest, in the fall. The man stances for a extensive time observing down both paths. He knew he could not tourism both paths as a single person, and he would have to indicate which on to take. He unambiguous to take the one less voyaged. As soon as he ongoing down the path he indicated he knew he would not be back to attempt the other road. Essentially he had made his verdict and had to stick with it. But by enchanting the one less toured it made all the variance. I ponder this is a metaphor on life, we can revenue the road that utmost revenue. The informal road and go somewhere. Nevertheless by captivating the tougher road or the road less voyaged it will be further satisfying. Line one, three, and four had quatrains; line one had kindling at the conclusion and line three had erected at the end where line four had could at the end. This is an instance of a virile rhyme. Lines six, eight, and nine had words on the conclusion of the sentence that rhymed; fair, wear, and there. Lines 11, 13, and 14 had words at the end that rhymed; lay, day, and way. I ponder the edifice of this poem is from a story viewpoint. Richard Cory Edwin Arlington Robinson (1869 – 1935) Whenever Richard Cory went down town, We people on the pavement looked at him: He was a gentleman from sole to crown, Clean favored, and imperially slim. And he always quietly arrayed, And he was always human when he talked; But still he fluttered pulses when he said, â€Å"good-morning† and he glittered when he walked. And he was rich – yes, richer than a king – And admirably schooled in every grace: In fine, we thought that he was everything To make us wish that we were in his place. So on we worked, and waited for the light, And went without the meat, and cursed the bread; And Richard Cory, one calm summer night, Went home and put a bullet through his head. This poem invokes up descriptions of a opulent, stylish, attractive man. Approaching into town, and all the towns people, or masses just glare at him. All the towns’ individuals resented him, and required to be him, owed to his edification, refinement, and prosperity. He sported extravagant attires I depiction  a ostentatious sequenced suite like Elvis sported. Then one night he went home and devoted suicide. I consider that this poem is a metaphor that currency, affluence, trinkets, and good appearances can’t buy you contentment. Every further finale word pretty much rhymes. And I ponder it is inscribed in a stanza. I found that this poem had a vibrant declaration for the reader. Be contented where you are, the lawn is not continuously greener on the other side. References Thiel, D. (2005). Crossroads. New York, NY: Longman. Plunkett, A. (n. d. ). My Grandmother’s Love Letters. Poetry Foundation. Retrieved July 1, 2014, from http://www. poetryfoundation. org/poem/177645 Plunkett, A. (n. d. ). Richard Cory. Poetry Foundation. Retrieved July 1, 2014, from http://www. poetryfoundation. org/poem/174248 . (n. d. ). . Retrieved July 1, 2014, from http://www. juicerreview. org/ . (n. d. ). Poets. org. Retrieved July 1, 2014, from http://www. poets. org/ (n. d. ). Poets. org. Retrieved July 1, 2014, from http://www. poets. org/poetsorg/poem/road-not-taken http://www. impalapublications. com/blog/index. php? /archives/523-Richard-Cory,-b y-James-OFee. html. (n. d. ).

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

The School Of Prison Pipeline Presents The Intersection Of...

Chapter One: Introduction Background of the Study: The School-to-Prison Pipeline presents the intersection of a K-12 educational system and a juvenile system, which too often fails to serve our nations at risk youth. For most students, the pipeline begins with inadequate resources in public schools. Overcrowded classrooms, a lack of qualified teachers, and insufficient funding for extras such as counselors, special education services, even textbooks, lock students into second-rate educational environments. This failure to meet educational needs increases disengagement and dropouts, increasing the risk of later court involvement (Bennett-Haron, Fasching-Varner, Martin, Mitchell 2014). Even worse, schools may actually encourage dropouts in response to pressures from test-based accountability regimes such as the No Child Left Behind Act, which create incentives to push out low-performing students to boost overall test scores (Cramer, Gonzales, Lafont-Pellegrini 2014). Lacking resources, facing incentives to push out low-performing st udents, and responding to a handful of highly-publicized school shootings, schools have embraced zero-tolerance policies that automatically impose severe punishment regardless of circumstances. Under these policies, students have been expelled for bringing nail clippers or scissors to school (Christle, Jolivette, Nelson 2005). Rates of suspension have increased dramatically in recent years from 1.7 million in 1998 to 3.1 million in 2010